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Table 1 Results of XPS investigations, with surface concentrations given in atomic % (at%), for distinct pristine sapphire samples (average values are given) and for these substrates after contact with 2 wt% G50 formulation either for 17 h and then rinsed 45 min (samples G50-17h) or for 27 h and then rinsed 4 h (samples G50-27h)

From: Interfactant action of an amphiphilic polymer upon directing graphene oxide layer formation on sapphire substrates

Sample Element
F O C N Al
Pristine sapphire 1.0 ± 0.1 43.7 ± 0.5 20.3 ± 0.7 0.1 34.0 ± 0.5
 G50-17h, sample 1 0.4 ± 0.1 28.6 ± 2.2 52.1 ± 5.1 0.5 ± 0.1 16.1 ± 3
 G50-17h, sample 2 0.3 ± 0.1 27.0 ± 0.7 55.9 ± 2.3 0.5 ± 0.1 16 ± 1.6
 G50-27h, sample 1 0.4 ± 0.1 32.8 ± 1.7 47.6 ± 3.0 0.4 ± 0.1 22.7 ± 1.4
 G50-27h, sample 2 0.3 ± 0.1 29.3 ± 0.7 51.0 ± 1.6 0.4 ± 0.1 18.9 ± 0.9