- Open Access
Experimental fatigue and aging evaluation of the composite patch repair of a metallic ship hull
© Meniconi et al.; licensee Springer. 2014
- Received: 25 November 2014
- Accepted: 5 December 2014
- Published: 20 December 2014
This article describes the fatigue analysis of a composite repair that was applied to the metallic hull of a Floating, Storage and Offloading (FSO) platform. The main objective is to address the durability and thus the expected operational life of the repair, with emphasis on the adhesive bonded interface between metal and composite. The adoption of this repair technology is increasing in Brazil and abroad and little is known about its long term performance when applied to harsh, dynamic applications like naval structures in operation. During repair installation, more than a year ago, an array of Bragg grating extensometers was applied for reliable structural behavior monitoring. Dynamic strain samples were acquired daily and remotely sent to shore for processing. In parallel, lap shear fatigue tests were performed at the lab in order to establish a suitable defect growth fatigue curve, concerning repair disbondment. The experimental strain data, together with a specific fatigue curved experimentally defined provided the input of a Finite Element Model of the repaired structure and resulted in the expected fatigue life of the repair metal-composite interface. Environmental aging was beneficial as it resulted in a12% increase in the critical shear stress of the interface.
- Composite repair
- Adhesive interface
- Fatigue analysis
- Structural monitoring
Offshore production structures like Floating, Production, Storage and Offloading vessels (FPSOs) are designed to remain in station for 25 years or more. This is a major deviation from the traditional ship maintenance scheme, which involves dry docking every 5 years or so, for overhaul maintenance. Due to this scenario, in place repair techniques were investigated, in order to restore structural integrity without the need of interrupting production. Composite patch repairs are one of those techniques, because no hot work is involved, turning the operation intrinsically safe. Many success application cases of this technique are reported .
In this study case the composite patch repair design followed the approach proposed at the DNV technical report “Project Recommended Practice of Composite Patch Repair for FPSO Structures” (DNV RP) -. The design has also utilized the Finite Element Method (FEM), starting from the global model of the ship as available in a database. The local model of the repaired region was constrained at its boundaries by the displacements obtained from the global model for an extreme load case. The local model of the repair was implemented in ABAQUS™ FEM code version 6.13 . Dynamic lap shear tests were run in order to define a fatigue curve for this specific case and this was compared with strain data acquired at the repaired structure.
Double lap shear tests
The composite material adopted for the repair is a biaxial 45°/-45°, non-crimp carbon fabric, as the main objective was to reinstate the shear stiffness of the hull. The resin used for lamination was a rubber modified vinyl-ester. The resin was also applied as the adhesive at the metal-composite interface. The elastic properties of the carbon laminate were, knowing that directions 1/2 correspond to 0°/90°: E1 = E2 = 46GPa, ν12 = 0.05 and G12 = 3 GPa. The adhesive properties were E = 2.3 GPa and ν = 0.38.
DLS test results
Overlap length (mm)
Total width (mm)
Failure load (N)
Unit failure load f (N/mm)
FEM simulation of the DLS tests
The model behavior resulted somewhat stiffer, but the non-linear nature of interface behavior was adequately modelled. A failure load of about 700 N/mm for long overlaps was indicated, which is close to the experimental average. The reduction in ultimate load for short overlaps was also captured by the model.
The SG rosette applied to the unreinforced beam displayed a beginning of plasticity and some erratic behavior above 150kN load level. Nevertheless, an elastic regime was captured between 100kN and 150kN for both tests, so this load range provided the basis for results comparison. Between those two load levels there was an increase in shear stress of 35 MPa for the unreinforced beam and of 27 MPa for the reinforced beam. In conclusion, the 9 mm thick carbon laminate bonded to the web caused a 23% reduction of shear stresses at that instrumented point.
Determination of strain energy release rates
As can be seen, strain energy varies with the square of unit loaf f - in agreement with formula (3) - up to f around 400 N/mm, which is little more than half the quasi-static failure load. This range is also within the approximately linear behavior of the interface, indicated by the load x displacement curve, as shown in Figure 3. Moreover, within this load range G is independent of defect size and a parabolic curve fit, shown as a dashed line in Figure 7, gives a conservative estimative of G values for defects up to 70 mm in size, even for load levels above 400 N/mm.
In the beginning there were no initial defects but as soon as the tests started there was a rapid defect nucleation at the center of the specimens, followed by stable propagation. As discussed above, for defects up to 70 mm in length, G is considered independent of defect size and is obtained from the unit load f through the dashed curve of Figure 7. The parameter adopted for fatigue evaluation was the maximum G reached in each cyclic test . As the specimens were tested in pairs, each test provided four defect fatigue propagation results. Defect size was the average of two defect tip measurements, from the front and back faces of specimen.
FEM model of the repaired region
The local model of the damaged hull region was translated to ABAQUS code through an input file obtained from the original model of the platform design database. The area with thickness losses had a refined mesh with 50 mm of shell element size. Metallic plate thickness variation within the model was considered according to a thickness map obtained from hull inspection measurements.
The basic design drive was to restore the original plate in-plane stiffness, along fiber directions. A +45°/-45° fiber disposition in respect to ship axis was adopted, as explained before, for shear reinforcement. Given E1 and E2 moduli of 46 GPa measured for the composite laminate, a 4.6 (210/46) multiplier applies to steel thickness losses to obtain the corresponding carbon thickness. The minimum thickness required by Class at the hull position under analysis is 19.6 mm. For the most affected plating, with 11.5 mm of steel remaining, an added 8.1 mm of steel or 37.3 mm of carbon was thus needed.
Characteristics of the repair laminates
Number of layers
Carbon thick. (mm)
Equiv. steel thick. (mm)
After the repair stress field was obtained for this load case, some circular defects were simulated at the rightmost, lower repair corner, where the Tresca stress invariants were largest, as indicated by the inset at Figure 11. The defects simulated disbondments between steel and composite, starting at the edges. Two defect sizes were simulated: 200 and 500 mm in radius. Then, similarly as it was done for the simulation of DLS tests, the defects were considered to have grown about 10% in area.
The strain energies given by the models both before and after defect growth were obtained and the SERRs were calculated as indicated by expression (4). For the smallest defect it resulted to be 69.7 J/m2 and for the largest, 67.4 J/m2. The load case in study is a maximum one, with very few occurrences, but even if it were frequent the defects would not grow in fatigue, as the threshold is 317 J/m2.
Structural monitoring results
The strain monitoring system adopted Bragg grating optical strain gages, in order to eliminate zero drifts and electromagnetic interferences that could be captured by the long cable needed to drive the signals from the hull to the local processing and data transfer unit, located at the platform deck. A total number of thirteen delta strain gage rosettes were applied at the external surface of the composite patch repair, together with two dummy sensors for temperature compensation. Strain data was acquired four times a day and sent to the office in Rio de Janeiro through the company intranet.
It can be seen from the graph that long term stress ranges sometimes approached the maximum load case illustrated in Figure 11, but as shown before, it is still well below the fatigue threshold. So, the monitoring results also indicate that eventual defects that exist at the metal/composite interface will not grow due to fatigue.
Part of the original reinforced plate from which the DLS test specimens were cut was reserved during the materials qualification period at the beginning of the project. Afterwards, it was submitted to an accelerated aging program in an environmental chamber, firstly with one week long exposition to salt spray, followed by another week long exposition to UV radiation. This phase lasted for six months.
As can be seen, the aging process caused an improvement in interface properties, as the unit failure load increased from 736 N/mm to an average value of about 830 N/mm, a 12% increase factor. What the aging test has shown is that the repair itself provided an efficient barrier against the environment and protected the interface from any chemical or physical attack. The improvement of unitary failure load with time thus indicates a completion of the adhesive curing process. It can be concluded that the safety factor of the patch repair against instantaneous disbondment is even higher than originally designed, after environmental aging.
A FEM adhesive interface behavior model was established from the mechanical properties of both adhesive and composite materials and DLS test results. Defect propagation tests provided a suitable defect growth fatigue curve. Both interface model and fatigue data were utilized in the FEM modelling of the repair executed, and together with the strain monitoring data acquired, they led to the conclusion that the repair will not fail due to fatigue propagation of eventual defects existing at the adhesive interface. Furthermore, environmental aging was beneficial as it caused a 12% increase in the critical shear stress of the interface.
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